Category Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is generating massive and rapidly growing volumes of data. Billions of connected devices, sensors, and systems are producing continuous streams of data that hold immense value for analytics and driving operational efficiencies. However, all this real-time IoT data presents major challenges in how to securely ingest, store, process, and analyze these enormous, fast-moving data streams.

Handling IoT data at scale requires leveraging the right big data technologies and architectures. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll dig into the major technologies and tools used to build big data pipelines for the Internet of Things.

IOT and Big Data - Key Big Data Technologies Challenges using IoT
IOT and Big Data – Key Big Data Technologies Challenges using IoT

Contents: IOT and Big Data

Overview of Key Big Data Technologies Challenges using IoT

Before surveying specific technologies, let’s look at why IoT data poses challenges for traditional data infrastructure:

  • Massive data volumes – IoT devices generate enormous amounts of data that is cumulative over time. This big data has to be efficiently stored and processed.
  • Variety of data – IoT data comes in many formats from structured to unstructured. Data platforms need to handle diversity.
  • Velocity of data – IoT data is continuously streaming in real-time and at high throughput. Platforms must enable ingesting and reacting to data in motion.
  • Data veracity – With so many data sources, noise and errors accumulate. Cleaning and aligning data is critical.
  • Security – IoT data contains sensitive information that must be protected end-to-end.
  • Timeliness – The value of IoT data diminishes quickly over time. Real-time data pipelines are crucial.
  • Lack of skills – Big data and data science skills are still relatively scarce. Solutions should simplify analysis.

These challenges make traditional databases and data infrastructure inadequate for the demands of IoT data at scale. Instead, we need big data technologies designed specifically to handle the volume, variety, and velocity of IoT data flows.

Core Big Data Technologies for IoT Data Pipelines

Now let’s survey some of the leading big data technologies that form core components of IoT data architectures:

IOT and Big Data - Kafka for data Streaming
IOT and Big Data – Kafka for data Streaming

Apache Kafka: Data Ingestion and Streaming

Apache Kafka is a distributed, high-throughput messaging system optimized for ingesting and processing real-time data streams. Kafka is ideal for IoT scenarios because it provides:

  • High-performance data ingestion from millions of IoT devices
  • Durable buffering of streams for replay and analysis
  • Low latency publication and consumption for real-time processing
  • Scalability without data loss or downtime

Kafka has a pub/sub model whereby IoT devices or aggregators can feed data streams into Kafka topics while applications consume streams by subscribing to topics. Kafka handles replicating streams across a cluster and retaining data.

Kafka integrates well with stream processing systems like Spark, Flink, and Storm. It can also feed data to storage systems like Hadoop and Cassandra. This makes it a flexible data ingestion backbone for IoT pipelines.


  • High throughput
  • Low latency
  • Fault tolerance
  • Durable buffering
  • Scalability


  • Complexity to setup, configure, and operate
  • Message ordering not guaranteed
  • Minimal data transformation capabilities

Real-World Examples

  • Bosch uses Kafka to aggregate real-time sensor data from smart homes and buildings into reliable data streams.
  • Uber uses Kafka to stream geospatial data from rides for real-time analytics.
  • Netflix uses Kafka to collect real-time insights from user video streaming.

IOT and Big Data - Hadoop distributed solution for big data
IOT and Big Data – Hadoop distributed solution for big data

Apache Hadoop: Scalable Batch Processing

Apache Hadoop is the most prominent framework for distributed storage and batch processing of big data on clusters of commodity servers. The core components of Hadoop are:

  • HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System): Distributed and replicated storage across cluster
  • MapReduce: Programming paradigm for parallel batch processing of data on the cluster

Hadoop enables scaling compute and storage resources linearly by adding nodes. It also provides fault tolerance against hardware failures. This makes it suitable for workloads that require analyzing large sets of historical IoT data for patterns and insights in an offline batch manner.


  • Highly scalable
  • Cost efficient
  • Fault tolerant
  • Flexible data formats (unstructured)


  • Batch processing only (not real-time)
  • Complex to setup and administer
  • Not optimized for iterative processing
  • Latency for retrieving data

Real-World Examples

  • GE analyzes tens of petabytes of historical sensor data from industrial machines using Hadoop to optimize performance.
  • Walmart uses Hadoop for near real-time analytics on terabytes of structured web and social media data alongside machine data.
  • Square processes millions of transaction records per day on Hadoop to detect fraud.

IOT and Big Data - Apache spark
IOT and Big Data – Apache spark

Apache Spark: Stream Processing and Analytics

Apache Spark provides an integrated engine for both stream processing and batch analytics of big data. Spark can run standalone or on top of Hadoop and other data platforms via adapters.

For IoT, Spark is ideal for:

  • Ingesting and analyzing real-time data streams
  • Iteratively querying and processing data with low latency
  • Applying machine learning algorithms on data using MLlib

Spark uses in-memory caching which makes it faster than batch systems like Hadoop for most workloads. Spark Streaming allows micro-batch processing of real-time data.

Structured APIs like DataFrames, SQL, and Datasets provide ease of use without sacrificing performance. Built-in libraries make it straightforward to apply machine learning algorithms.


  • Speed and performance gains over Hadoop
  • Unified engine for batch and streaming
  • Easy to use standard APIs
  • Rich ecosystem of tools


  • Requires large memory allocation
  • Micro-batch not fully real-time
  • May not integrate well with other data platforms

Real-World Examples

  • Netflix uses Spark to analyze viewer watching patterns in real-time to provide personalized recommendations.
  • Pinterest utilizes Spark SQL for interactive querying of their big data warehouse.
  • Yahoo integrates Spark with Hadoop and Cassandra to filter spam ads in real-time.

IOT and Big Data - Apache Cassandra
IOT and Big Data – Apache Cassandra

Apache Cassandra: Distributed NoSQL Database

Apache Cassandra is a distributed, wide column NoSQL database designed for high scalability and availability without compromising performance. It provides linear scale out by distributing data across nodes in a cluster.

Key features like tunable consistency levels, multi-data center replication, and lack of a single point of failure provide resilience and uptime. Cassandra’s data model also allows for efficient storage of time-series IoT data.

These capabilities make Cassandra well-suited as a big data repository for persisting streams of IoT sensor data as well as running operational analytics.


  • Elastic linear scalability
  • High availability and fault tolerance
  • Tunable data consistency
  • Optimized for writes at scale


  • No native aggregation capability
  • No joins between tables
  • Querying is tricky
  • Can be slow for non-time series data

Real-World Examples

  • Instagram uses Cassandra to store time-series analytics data on user engagement.
  • Apple uses Cassandra as the backend database for the Apple Store app.
  • Netflix monitors Cassandra deployments using data stored in Cassandra itself.

IOT and Big Data - Apache Flink Realtie analytics
IOT and Big Data – Apache Flink Realtie analytics

Apache Flink is a distributed stream processing framework that provides accurate, event-time-aligned windowing for analyzing real-time data streams. Flink is more lightweight and composable than monolithic batch systems.

Key capabilities like checkpointing, exactly-once semantics, and nativeCEP library make Flink a robust platform for performing complex event stream processing tasks on live IoT data.

Flink integrates with YARN and can run anywhere from on-premise to the cloud. Flink processes data streams as true streams rather than micro-batches, enabling real-time analytics.


  • Native stream processing with low latency
  • Fault tolerance and guaranteed delivery
  • Composable library for stream analytics
  • Integrates with other platforms


  • Limited adoption so far
  • Less ecosystem integration
  • Tricky debugging and performance tuning

Real-World Examples

  • Alibaba uses Flink to process real-time payment transactions during mega sales like Singles Day.
  • ING Bank built a stream processing pipeline with Flink to detect fraud in real-time.
  • Rakuten monitors ecommerce platforms using Flink streaming analytics.

IOT and Big Data - Apache Storm: Distributed Real-Time Computation
IOT and Big Data – Apache Storm: Distributed Real-Time Computation

Apache Storm: Distributed Real-Time Computation

Apache Storm is a distributed, open source real-time processing engine designed for high performance and horizontal scalability. Storm is used for rapidly processing unbounded streams of data.

Key components like Spouts and Bolts make Storm highly extensible. It also guarantees every message will be processed through features like acknowledged messages and checkpointing.

Storm is ideal for real-time applications that need low latency processing of millions of events per second from IoT and connected devices. Storm integrates with queueing and database technologies.


  • Scales horizontally with guaranteed message processing
  • Low latency for real-time processing
  • Fault tolerance through acknowledgements
  • Easy to operate and manage


  • Requires writing more complex bolts and spouts
  • Harder to debug and tune
  • No machine learning capabilities
  • Limited adoption and community compared to Spark

Real-World Examples

  • Webtrack DIG uses Apache Storm for real-time processing of billions of social media events to detect trends.
  • Yieldbot built a real-time bidding engine using Storm to rapidly place targeted mobile ads.
  • Yahoo uses Storm for real-time analytics to create audience segments for advertising.
IOT and Big Data – TensorFlow: ML Model Training and Deployment

TensorFlow: ML Model Training and Deployment

While not a pure big data technology, TensorFlow is a hugely popular open source platform from Google for developing machine learning models and training them on big data.

TensorFlow integrates cleanly with distributed computation engines like Spark and big data platforms like Hadoop and Cassandra to apply advanced analytics and machine learning algorithms.

For IoT applications, TensorFlow empowers building intelligent models like predictive maintenance, anomaly detection, and real-time optimization based on sensor data.


  • Highly scalable using distribute computing
  • Broad ecosystem of tools
  • Simplifies ML model development
  • High performance training and deployment


  • Requires specialize ML/AI skills
  • Complex models can be challenging to productionize and maintain
  • Needs expensive GPUs/TPUs for advanced deep learning

Real-World Examples

  • Sense360 uses TensorFlow on Spark to analyze billions of data points from sensors and model consumer behavior.
  • Square applies TensorFlow on customer transaction data to provide merchants personalized business insights and forecasting.
  • Rolls Royce trains TensorFlow neural networks on sensor data from airplane jet engines to predict failures.

This covers the major big data technologies used to build IoT data pipelines. But there are other helpful tools like MongoDB, Amazon Kinesis, Azure Event Hubs, Druid, and InfluxDB that fill various niches based on architectural needs.

The key is identifying the right mix of tools to ingest real-time streams from devices, store and process data at scale, enable real-time analytics, and apply machine learning.

Next let’s look at some common IoT big data architectures that bring these technologies together…

IOT and Big Data - Internet of Things and Big Data Architectures
IOT and Big Data – Internet of Things and Big Data Architectures

Internet of Things Big Data Architectures and Data Storage

Building an effective big data pipeline for IoT requires integrating several data technologies into an end-to-end architecture. There are a few common architectural patterns that have emerged:

IoT Data Lake

A data lake architecture stores raw, unstructured data from IoT devices in low-cost object storage like HDFS or S3. Data is extracted, cleansed, and transformed later to share across the organization.

IoT Data Lake Architecture

Data lakes provide flexibility to explore diverse data. But governance and cataloging are needed so users know what’s available. IoT data lakes typically leverage tools like:

  • Collection: Kafka, Kinesis
  • Storage: HDFS, S3
  • Processing: Spark, MapReduce, Hive
  • ML: TensorFlow, PyTorch

IoT Data Warehouse

A data warehouse stores structured, cleansed data from IoT systems for analytics usage. It applies schemas and organization during ingestion. This modeled approach enables standard SQL querying. But it lacks flexibility for unstructured data.

IoT Data Warehouse Architecture

IoT warehouses integrate engines like:

  • ELT Processes: Kafka, Spark, Flink
  • Cloud DW: Redshift, BigQuery, Snowflake
  • Business Intelligence: Tableau, PowerBI, Looker

Lambda Architecture

The Lambda architecture combines both batch and real-time data processing pipelines on the same data. This provides analytical capabilities on historical data as well fresh data.

Lambda IoT Architecture
  • Batch Layer: Hadoop, Spark
  • Speed Layer: Kafka, Flink, Storm
  • Serving Layer: Cassandra, ElasticSearch

Centralized IoT Hub

A centralized message hub ingests, processes, and routes all IoT data between devices, edge hubs, and cloud analytics. This simplifies instrumentation and connectivity. Azure IoT Hub and AWS IoT Core provide managed hub services.

Central IoT Hub Architecture
  • Messaging Hub: IoT Hub, IoT Core
  • Device Messaging: MQTT, AMQP, HTTPS
  • Insights: Time Series Insights, Timestream
  • Business Apps: Power BI, Web Apps

IoT Edge Analytics

Edge computing pushes processing closer to IoT devices for faster insights and reducing data streams to the cloud. This acts as a filter, only sending useful data for storage and higher level analytics.

Edge Analytics Architecture
  • Edge Computing: Azure Stack Edge, AWS Outposts
  • Message Brokers: MQTT, AWS IoT Greengrass
  • Edge Analytics: Azure Stream Analytics, Spark
  • Cloud Integration: Event Hubs, IoT Hub, Kafka
IOT and Big Data - Big Data and IOT Pipeline
IOT and Big Data – Big Data and IOT Pipeline

Key Elements of An Internet of Things and Big Data Pipeline

Now that we’ve looked at common architectural approaches, let’s drill into the key elements that comprise a big data pipeline for IoT:

Data Ingestion

  • Collecting and transporting streams of data from IoT devices into the data platform reliably and without data loss.
  • Technologies like Kafka, Kinesis handle transferring streams with scalability, low latency, and durability.

Data Storage

  • Raw data from IoT devices needs to be stored for further processing and long term archival.
  • Distributed storage systems like Hadoop and Cassandra allow storing massive amounts of data efficiently.

Stream Processing

  • Analyzing data in motion in real-time as it arrives from IoT devices before storing for later batch processing.
  • Tools like Spark Streaming and Flink enable complex stream processing with millisecond latency.

Batch Processing

  • Processing historical batches of collected data for patterns, aggregations, and machine learning model training.
  • Hadoop provides massively parallel batch processing across clusters.

Data Analysis

  • Once processed, the data needs analysis and visualization to extract insights.
  • SQL queries, dashboards, and notebooks help analyze stored IoT data.

Machine Learning

  • With rich IoT data, machine learning can be applied for predictive analytics and optimization.
  • TensorFlow integrates with big data tools to enable scalable model development.

This pipeline transforms raw IoT data into valuable insights. Next let’s see how the cloud can help accelerate building and scaling the pipeline.

Leveraging Cloud-Managed Services

While open source big data technologies provide the core foundations for an IoT data pipeline, managing the infrastructure and tooling can be complex. This is where leveraging managed cloud services can help simplify and accelerate IoT analytics.

Here are some examples of cloud-managed services that reduce the operational burdens:

  • Amazon Kinesis – Fully managed data streams for data intake and processing
  • Google BigQuery – Serverless data warehouse for analytics at scale
  • Azure Event Hubs – Real-time event ingestion for streaming data
  • Amazon EMR – Hosted Hadoop and Spark clusters in the cloud
  • AWS Glue – Fully serverless ETL and data integration

By leveraging these platform services, enterprises can focus less on tooling and infrastructure and more on their core analytics use cases and applications. Cloud also provides elastic scalability to handle spikes in IoT data.

Of course, when relying on cloud services, it’s crucial to ensure regulatory compliance, have disaster recovery provisions, and lock down security configurations.

IOT and Big Data - Future of the technologies
IOT and Big Data – Future of the technologies – Source: mdpi

Key Takeaways Big Data and IOT

To wrap up, here are some key takeaways to successfully leveraging big data technologies for IoT:

  • Plan for scale and growth when architecting – data volumes grow quickly.
  • Ingest and process streams in real-time to drive instant insights.
  • Store raw data for future analytics and machine learning.
  • Combine batch and real-time pipelines for historical and fresh data.
  • Blend open source technologies with managed cloud services.
  • Focus on driving valuable insights vs just collecting data.
  • Make data easily accessible to users through APIs and tools.
  • Implement robust data governance and security end-to-end.

Conclusion: IOT and Big Data

The massive data generated by the Internet of Things holds the potential for transformative benefits across industries – from supply chain optimization to predictive maintenance and personalized healthcare. But harnessing the power of IoT data requires building robust big data pipelines capable of ingesting, storing, processing and analyzing massive streams of real-time data.

As we have seen, a technology ecosystem has emerged to enable building scalable IoT data architectures, including:

  • Data Ingestion – Kafka, Kinesis
  • Storage – Hadoop, Cassandra, S3
  • Stream Processing – Spark, Flink, Storm
  • ML & Analytics – TensorFlow, Presto, Looker

These technologies provide the core components for an IoT data pipeline. However, fully realizing the value of IoT data remains challenging. Organizations must bring together the right mix of tools, cloud infrastructure, internal skills, and business priorities.

Key aspects include:

  • Blending real-time and batch pipelines
  • Leveraging managed cloud services
  • Building for future scale and extensibility
  • Enabling easy data access through APIs
  • Focusing analytics on clear business outcomes

With a robust big data foundation in place, IoT data can deliver game-changing visibility into systems and processes, driving data-driven decision making. We are still in the early stages of organizations harnessing IoT data at scale. As architectures mature and become more turnkey, IoT data will trigger sweeping revolutions across industries.

The future will undoubtedly bring a proliferation of interconnected devices and ever-growing data streams. Organizations that build adaptable platforms to harness this data today will gain sustainable competitive advantage. I hope this guide provides a practical overview of the technologies making this new data-driven reality possible.

Frequently Asked Questions ( FAQ) IOT and Big Data

Q: What is the relationship between IoT and big data?

A: IoT and big data are closely related as IoT devices generate massive amounts of data which can be collected and analyzed using big data analytics. This data can provide valuable insights and enable businesses and organizations to make data-driven decisions.

Q: How can big data analytics help in IoT solutions?

A: Big data analytics can help in IoT solutions by processing and analyzing the large volumes of data generated by IoT devices. This analysis can provide valuable insights into consumer behavior, market trends, and operational efficiencies, leading to improved decision-making and enhanced customer experiences.

Q: What is the future of IoT and big data?

A: The future of IoT and big data is promising. As the number of IoT devices continues to grow, the amount of data generated will also increase exponentially. This will create more opportunities for utilizing big data analytics to gain actionable insights and drive innovation in various sectors such as healthcare, manufacturing, and smart cities.

Q: How does IoT work together with big data?

A: IoT devices collect and transmit data from various sources, such as sensors or connected devices. This data is then processed and analyzed using big data analytics tools to extract valuable insights. By combining the power of IoT and big data, organizations can make informed decisions, optimize processes, and create new business models.

Q: What is the role of data analytics in IoT?

A: Data analytics plays a crucial role in IoT by enabling organizations to make sense of the vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices. By applying advanced analytics techniques, such as machine learning and predictive modeling, businesses can uncover patterns, identify anomalies, and derive actionable insights from the data to improve operational efficiency and enhance customer experiences.

Q: How is big data stored in IoT?

A: Big data generated by IoT devices can be stored in various ways, such as distributed file systems, cloud storage, or edge computing devices. The choice of storage depends on factors like data volume, velocity, and security requirements. However, it’s essential to have robust data management strategies in place to ensure data integrity, privacy, and accessibility.

Q: How can IoT be used with big data to gather valuable insights?

A: IoT devices generate vast amounts of data that can provide valuable insights when combined with big data analytics. By analyzing this data, organizations can gain insights into customer behavior, optimize processes, detect patterns, and make data-driven decisions. This, in turn, can lead to improved operational efficiency, enhanced customer experiences, and the creation of new business opportunities.

Q: How does big data analytics help visualize IoT data?

A: Big data analytics tools often come with data visualization capabilities that enable organizations to gain a better understanding of the IoT data. Through the use of charts, graphs, and dashboards, data can be presented in a visual format, allowing for easier interpretation and identification of trends, patterns, and anomalies.

Q: What are some popular big data analytics tools for IoT solutions?

A: Some popular big data analytics tools for IoT solutions include Apache Hadoop, Apache Spark, Cassandra, MongoDB, and Elasticsearch. These tools provide powerful capabilities for storing, processing, and analyzing large volumes of data, helping organizations derive actionable insights and drive innovation in their IoT initiatives.

Q: How can big data analytics help in analyzing IoT data?

A: Big data analytics can help in analyzing IoT data by processing and analyzing the vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices. By applying complex algorithms and techniques, such as machine learning and data mining, organizations can uncover patterns, detect anomalies, and derive actionable insights from the IoT data to make informed decisions and improve business processes.